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Malaysia

National Parliament Composition

Government

Head of State (Monarch) Ibrahim Iskandar of Johor
Head of Government (PM)Anwar Ibrahim (PKR, Liberal)
Parties in GovernmentPeople’s Justice Party (PKR, Liberal)
Democratic Action Party (DAP, Centre-left)
United Malays National Organisation (UMNO, Conservative)
United Bumiputera Heritage Party (PBB, Conservative)
National Trust Party (AMANAH, Centre-left)
Sarawak Peoples’ Party (PRS, Centrist)
Heritage Party (WARISAN, Liberal)
United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation (UPKO, Regionalist)
Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA, Conservative)
Progressive Democratic Party (PDP, Regionalist)
Sarawak United Peoples’ Party (SUPP, Regionalist)
Social Democratic Harmony Party (KDM, Regionalist)
Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC, Conservative)
United Sabah People’s Party (PBRS, Conservative)
United Sabah Party (PBS, Regionalist)
Homeland Solidarity Party (STAR, Regionalist)
Malaysian Nation Party (PBM, Centre-right)
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Parties

Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS)
Malaysian Islamic Party
Party Leader: Abdul Hadi Awang
Orientation: Islamist, Malay interests

Note: the party is part of the Perikatan Nasional (National Alliance) electoral alliance.

Parti Tindakan Demokratik (DAP)
Democratic Action Party
Party Leader: Anthony Loke
Orientation: Centre-left
International Affiliation: Progressive Alliance, SocDem Asia

Note: The party is part of the Pakatan Harapan (Alliance of Hope) electoral alliance.

Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR)
People’s Justice Party
Party Leader: Anwar Ibrahim
Orientation: Liberal
International Affiliation: Liberal International, Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats

Note: The party is part of the Pakatan Harapan (Alliance of Hope) electoral alliance.

Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia (BERSATU)
Malaysian United Indigenous Party
Party Leader: Muhyiddin Yassin
Orientation: Conservative, Malay interests

Note: the party is part of the Perikatan Nasional (National Alliance) electoral alliance.

Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu (UMNO)
United Malays National Organisation
Party Leader: Ahmad Zahid Hamidi
Orientation: Conservative, Malay interests

Note: the party is part of the Barisan Nasional (National Front) and Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (Sabah People’s Alliance) electoral alliances.

Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB)
United Bumiputera Heritage Party
Party Leader: Abang Abdul Rahman Johari Abang Openg
Orientation: Regionalist, Conservative, Bumiputera interests

Note: the party is part of the Gabungan Parti Sarawak (Sarawak Parties Alliance) electoral alliance.

Parti Amanah Negara (AMANAH)
National Trust Party
Party Leader: Mat Sabu
Orientation: Centre-left, Progressive Islamist

Note: The party is part of the Pakatan Harapan (Alliance of Hope) electoral alliance.

Parti Gagasan Rakyat Sabah (GAGASAN)
Sabah People’s Ideas Party
Party Leader: Hajiji Noor
Orientation: Regionalist, multiracialism

Note: The party is part of the Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (Sabah People’s Alliance) electoral alliance.

Parti Rakyat Sarawak (PRS)
Sarawak People’s Party
Party Leader: Joseph Salang Gandum
Orientation: Centrist

Note: the party is part of the Gabungan Parti Sarawak (Sarawak Parties Alliance) electoral alliance.

Parti Warisan (WARISAN)
Heritage Party
Party Leader: Shafie Apdal
Orientation: Liberal, centrist

Pertubuhan Kinabalu Progresif Bersatu (UPKO)
United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation
Party Leader: Ewon Benedick
Orientation: Regionalist, Multiracialism

Note: the party is a member of the Pakatan Harapan (Alliance of Hope) electoral alliance.

Persatuan Cina Malaysia (MCA)
马来西亚华人公会
Malaysian Chinese Association
Party Leader: Wee Ka Siong
Orientation: Conservative, Malaysian Chinese interests

Note: the party is part of the Barisan Nasional (National Front) and Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (Sabah People’s Alliance) electoral alliances.

Parti Rakyat Bersatu Sarawak (SUPP)
砂拉越人民联合党
Serempong Sa’ati Rayat Sarawak
Sarawak United People’s Party
Party Leader: Sim Kui Hian
Orientation: Regionalist, Multiracialism

Note: the party is a member of the Gabungan Parti Sarawak (Sarawak Parties Alliance) electoral alliance.

Parti Demokratik Progresif (PDP)
Progressive Democratic Party
Party Leader: Tiong King Sing
Orientation: Regionalist

Note: the party is part of the Gabungan Parti Sarawak (Sarawak Parties Alliance) electoral alliance.

Parti Bangsa Malaysia (PBM)
Malaysian People’s Party
Party Leader: Larry Sng
Orientation: Centre-right, multiracialism

Solidariti Tanah Airku Rakyat Sabah (STAR)
Homeland Solidarity Party
Party Leader: Jeffrey Kitingan
Orientation: Regionalist

Note: the party is part of the Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (Sabah People’s Alliance) electoral alliance.

Kongres India Se-Malaysia (MIC)
மலேசிய இந்திய காங்கிரஸ்
Malēciya intiya kāṅkiras
Malaysian Indian Congress
Party Leader: Vigneswaran Sanasee
Orientation: Conservative, Malaysian Indian interests

Note: the party is part of the Barisan Nasional (National Front) and Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (Sabah People’s Alliance) electoral alliances.

Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah (PBRS)
United Sabah People’s Party
Party Leader: Joseph Kurup
Orientation: Conservative, Regionalist

Note: the party is part of the Barisan Nasional (National Front) and Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (Sabah People’s Alliance) electoral alliances.

Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS)
United Sabah Party
Party Leader: Maximus Ongkili
Orientation: Regionalist, Kadazan-Dusun interests

Note: the party is a member of the Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (Sabah People’s Alliance) electoral alliance.

Ikatan Demokratik Malaysia (MUDA)
马来西亚民主联合阵线
மலேசிய ஐக்கிய மக்களாட்சி கூட்டணி
Malaysian United Democratic Alliance
Party Leader: Syed Saddiq Syed Abdul Rahman
Orientation: Centre-left, Multiracialism

Note: the party is allied with the Parti Sosialis Malaysia (Socialist Party of Malaysia)

Parti Sarawak Bersatu (PSB)
United Sarawak Party
Party Leader: Wong Soon Koh
Orientation: Regionalist, Centrist

Note: the party is part of the the Perikatan Rakyat Bersatu Sarawak (Sarawak United Peoples Alliance) electoral alliance.

Parti Kesejahteraan Demokratik Masyarakat (KDM)
社会民主和谐党 社會民主和諧黨
சமூக ஜனநாயக நல்லிணக்கக் கட்சி
Social Democratic Harmony Party
Party Leader: Peter Anthony
Orientation: Regionalist, Kadazandusun and Murut interests

Note: the party is allied to the Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (Sabah People’s Alliance) electoral alliance

Parti Progresif Sabah (SAPP)
Sabah Progressive Party
Party Leader: Yong Teck Lee
Orientation: Regionalist

Note: the party is part of the Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (Sabah People’s Alliance) electoral alliance.

Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia (GERAKAN)
馬來西亞民政運動黨 马来西亚民政运动党
மலேசிய மக்கள் இயக்கக் கட்சி
Malaysian People’s Movement Party
Party Leader: Dominic Lau Hoe Chai
Orientation: Liberal
International Affiliation: Liberal International (observer)

Note: the party is a member of the Perikatan Nasional (National Alliance) electoral alliance.

Parti Pejuang Tanah Air (PEJUANG)
Homeland Fighters’ Party
Party Leader: Mukhriz Mahathir
Orientation: Conservative, Malay interests

Parti Sosialis Malaysia (PSM)
马来西亚社会主义党
மலேசிய சோசியலிஸ்ட் கட்சி
Socialist Party of Malaysia
Party Leader: Michael Jeyakumar Devaraj
Orientation: Left-wing, Multiracialism

Note: the party is allied with Ikatan Demokratik Malaysia (Malaysian United Democratic Party)

Parti Rakyat Malaysia (PRM)
馬來西亞人民黨 马来西亚人民党
மலேசிய மக்கள் கட்சி
Malaysian People’s Party
Party Leader: Ahmad Juflis
Orientation: Left-wing

Parti Bumiputera Perkasa Malaysia (PUTRA)
Malaysia Mighty Bumiputera Party
Party Leader: Ibrahim Ali
Orientation: Right-wing

Note: the party is a member of the Gerakan Tanah Air (Motherland Movement) electoral alliance.

Barisan Jemaah Islamiah Se-Malaysia (BERJASA)
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front
Party Leader: Zamani Ibrahim
Orientation: Islamist, conservative

Note: the party is a member of the Gerakan Tanah Air (Motherland Movement) electoral alliance.

Parti Perikatan India Muslim Nasional (IMAN)
இந்திய முஸ்லிம் கூட்டணி கட்சி
National Indian Muslim Alliance Party
Party Leader: Mohammed Mosin Abdul Razak
Orientation: Malaysian Indian Muslim minority interests

Note: the party is a member of the Gerakan Tanah Air (Motherland Movement) electoral alliance.

Parti Hijau Malaysia (PHM)
Green Party of Malaysia
Party Leader: Abdul Razak Ismail
Orientation: Green politics

Parti Aspirasi Rakyat Sarawak (ASPIRASI)
Sarawak People’s Aspiration Party
Party Leader: Jane Anak Dripin
Orientation: Sarawak Regionalism

Parti Bumi Kenyalang (PBK)
Land of the Hornbill Party
肯雅蘭全民黨 肯雅兰全民党
Party Leader: Voon Lee Shan
Orientation: Sarawak Separatism

Youth Front Party (PFP)
青年黨 青年党
Party Leader: Razalif Mohd Zain
Orientation: Penang Regionalism